Friday, October 06, 2017

Pages from the Past: Two Women of Great Faith

From 2013? Written as a prayer to Jesus.

Andreas Herrlein [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Today’s Gospel of the Syro-Phoenician woman absolutely delights me, as her faith delighted you, Jesus. I “heard” it today in a TOB context, in which she appears unexpectedly to you, as Eve did for Adam, suddenly revealed in her vulnerability and openness as a “helper fit” for you. Her faith corresponds in such a way to your gift of self in your ministry as to suddenly manifest the communion of persons that this life is all about. She was “bone of your bone and flesh of your flesh” and your “O woman! Great is your faith!” was the cry of the new Adam on seeing—finally—someone who corresponded to his call.

Mary at Cana is exactly the same kind of “fit helper.” And probably every bit as spunky and wry, giving as good as she got.

The Wedding at Cana; Mosaic by Ivan Rupnik, SJ; 
Photo by Lawrence Lew, OP
Where you told the Syro-Phoenician that “the children’s food cannot be given to little dogs,” you told your own mother that the problem she was bringing up was not  your problem. And both women of great faith turned the tables on you. (It is also interesting that both stories involve the image of food—one of bread, the other of wine. And there is Jesus, the real food, in the middle.)

“Woman, great is your faith!” is like the cry of the woman sweeping her house and suddenly—there it is! the coin she had lost! “Rejoice with me; I have found the coin I lost!” Delight, surprise, dancing, celebration, acknowledgment to all others around.

I ask, on the basis of nothing more than the fact that you desire it and that it can be for your Father’s glory, that my faith might become such as to reveal me a “fit helper” at  your side, and will cause you to explode with amazement and joy and delight and acknowledgement. I’m not giving you much to work from, with my measly, nervous, cerebral faith. I guess you yourself will have to provide…the rib for my faith to be built on.

I asked for a kind of confirmation sign of this insight. Later that day I dumped onto my retreat house desk the contents of a little bag of adapters and a small silver coin with a Hebrew inscription rolled out; it turned out to be a shekel. (I have no idea how it ended up in my adapter pouch. It’s a keeper, for sure!)

Duly noted: “to be conformed to the image of the Son” hints that being made into “a helper like himself” is a process that extends through our life (and through time, for the “we” of the Church). It’s not simply a one by one, individual, atomized thing.

"Pages from the Past" are randomish excerpts from my old journals. I process things in writing, so there were a lot of volumes, but here and there I found notes that were still pertinent or helpful. I got rid of the books (hello, shredder!) and typed up the things I wanted to save, whether for myself (mostly) or to share.

Wednesday, October 04, 2017

On Icons, the Amish and Me

Relics, left to right: Bl. Francis X Seelos, St.
Peter Chanel (above globe), St. Therese,  St
Maria Goretti, St Ignatius of Loyola (at the 
feet of O.L. of Montserrat!). Bl Alberione's
relic is out visiting the sick.
Since I moved here to Boston (almost three years ago?!) and set up my little "altar" in the office, I have wanted to provide the saints' relics and statues a somewhat more dignified treatment than having them perennially posed upon a plastic spice rack. And so after a twenty year gap, I again picked up my embroidery thread and cross-stitch fabric to make an ecclesiastical style carpet for the office shrine. I determined on a motif of fleur-de-lis and crosses, in colors truly fitting the nobility of the persons represented on those plastic risers.

Part of the fun of cross-stitch for me is making my own pattern, even if it is cobbled together from bits I found online. So I found a basic fleur-de-lis pattern and enhanced it with some shading. (I'm still working on what kind of border to use, but I definitely want one!) I chose regal colors: gold and burgundy (you can't see it yet; that will be the background), and then I started stitching away.

The pattern I came up with calls for eight fleur-de-lis surrounded by randomly positioned Greek crosses. I finished the last of the fleurs last week, and I can assure you that no two are exactly alike.

That was not the plan.

My sister Mary tells me, "That's the charm of handmade items." The sisters here assure me, "The Amish always put an error in their quilting." Granted. And from time immemorial, iconographers have always left an incomplete patch on the image as a sign of human imperfection. I suppose I have surpassed them all, since I do not need to include a deliberate inconsistency in my needlework!

One day, when the burgundy has filled the background, and the fleurs-de-lis and crosses have been outlined and gold, and the blessed saints and martyrs have taken their place on it, not even I will see the manifold mistakes that will have been so carefully stitched on the Aida fabric. Even now, just seeing the crosses start to fill out the background gives me a little thrill. And as I look at it (with all the mistakes only I can see), I have to admit: God sees our life like this. He knows the original plan; he sees the misplaced stitches--and yet he still finds joy in having us as his children.

And we with all our fumbling, all our errors and even sins, are still giving him glory.

Tuesday, October 03, 2017

Fatima Rosary Novena--and an Invitation

This week the community will kick off our 2017 mission campaign with a Rosary Novena that will conclude on the evening of October 13--the 100th anniversary of the final apparition of Our Lady at Fatima (the day of the "Miracle of the Sun"). When we looked at Our Lady's exhortations from Fatima, and the headlines in our papers to this day, the mission campaign theme seems more sadly appropriate than we had planned: The Word Heals.

I was remembering what happened after Hurricane Katrina which largely spared the Pauline bookstore. (Our building sustained roof damage, and there was some wind-driven water damage in the chapel, but the flood waters never crossed the threshold.) As people moved back into the city and began stripping away the moldy drywall and putting soaked couches and cabinetry out for pickup, they started visiting our bookstore. People wanted to rebuild family libraries, starting from the most important books. There was a run on Bibles. One by one, the area's Adoration chapels reopened starting with a few hours each day. (It would be a year before perpetual adoration had fully resumed in New Orleans.)

With all the destruction that was before everyone's eyes, people knew it wasn't enough to rebuild homes. Hearts needed rebuilding, too. And the first place they looked was to the Word of God in the Scriptures and in the Eucharist.

Right now our country is desperate for healing in several places: Houston (remember that?) is still, yes, hauling moldy drywall and furniture out from millions of homes, while in Puerto Rico people are still without power, and in Las Vegas thousands are reeling from the shock of one man's murderous rage. And these are only the most obvious examples, from only one country in a world that is hurting all over.


The material needs are many, and they can be overwhelming. Invisible needs are even bigger, and
harder to identify.

You already know how far our mission can reach!
During our Rosary Novena, we will pray each day in a special way for people in need of a different kind of spiritual healing. You can send in your special intentions, too, and we will be praying three times a day for those needs. We'll also be sharing stories of how the Pauline mission has touched people in need of healing (sometimes in dramatic ways) and projects we are working on right now to reach still more people.

Often the projects that are meant to do the most good are precisely the ones we cannot expect will even cover the costs of producing them. So part of #thewordheals mission campaign will be inviting Catholics and other people of good will to help raise funds for the Pauline mission. We are using a really easy format that allows anyone to create a fundraising web page for sharing on social media. All they have to do is sign up and begin sharing daily updates, using the images that we have already created. Donations go straight to the Pauline mission; there is no hassle at all for collaborators.

Fundraising experts say that the number one reason people donate to a charity is because someone asked them. You may not be in a position to donate to #theWordHeals (you may be in Houston with a houseful of wet books, like my cousin) but you can be a part of bringing a healing word to others simply by creating one of those pages and sharing it with your social media circles or email contacts.  A Pauline lay cooperator who set up a page this morning has already inspired people to donate--and the campaign hasn't started yet! (It couldn't be easier; I just made a page myself in two clicks.)

So start this low-key fundraising with us, and then starting Thursday (Oct 5), go to #theWordHeals to pray with us three times a day: a short day-starter with Sr Mary Martha around 8 a.m. (Eastern Time); the noontime Angelus with me and the other sisters here in the Digital offices at the Pauline motherhouse; and an evening Rosary at 8 p.m. with sisters from the motherhouse. (You can also follow the prayers via Facebook at the Ask a Catholic Nun page.)

See you then!
And thanks.

Sunday, October 01, 2017

Sr Julia's Movie Recommendation for Therese's Feast Day

Over the summer, Sr Julia Mary made a phenomenal discovery: a movie version of St Therese's autobiographical Story of a Soul, with all the parts interpreted by the same actress. 

As far as I can tell, you can only get it digitally (by streaming it or buying a digital copy on Amazon; if you have Prime, you can stream it for free). And you have to be content with French audio and English footnotes. 

You'll be glad you did.

Friday, September 29, 2017

Michael the Defender; Satan the Accuser
Today's Feast of the Archangels Michael, Gabriel and Raphael (the only three angels given personal names in the Bible) brings the optional first reading from Revelation 12: the story of the fall of the angels, led by "huge dragon, the ancient serpent, who is called the Devil and Satan, the deceiver of the whole world."

It doesn't take much to imagine this mortal enemy of ours "prowling through the world, seeking the ruin of souls" in particular through ill-conceived media productions that continue to mislead, deceive and entrap the unwary or the careless. But there is another way that the enemy entraps us, and it is very, very clever.

Satan gets us to do his own work. He, "the accuser of the brethren," foments judgment, blame, accusation. This ploy works especially well with people who are concerned about doing good. It makes their own lives the measure of righteousness, so that whatever seems to diverge from that norm comes under suspicion. 

That "hermeneutic of suspicion" produces a trail of unlovely thoughts and resentful feelings. It may express itself in cool and cutting commentary or in sincere but ill-begotten fraternal correction. It doesn't matter where the truth lies: for Satan, what counts is keeping his victims looking outward, accusing one another. If this is done by means of social media with its capacity for exponential diffusion, all the better.

I assume that today many people will encounter the traditional Prayer to St Michael ("defend us in battle!"). Here's a prayer you may not have encountered before, to St Gabriel, the patron of audio-visual media. (It is, you may have guessed, by Blessed James Alberione, founder of the Pauline Family!):

To St. Gabriel the Archangel

         Father in heaven, I thank you for having chosen St. Gabriel from among the angels to bear the message of the Incarnation and Redemption of humanity. Mary accepted the tidings with faith, and your Son became incarnate and, by dying on the cross, redeemed all people.
         But the majority of people still have not received the message of salvation.
         St. Gabriel, patron of audio-visual media, implore Jesus Master that the Church may use these powerful means to preach the divine truth to be believed, to indicate the way to be followed.
         May these gifts of God serve to uplift and save everyone.
         May they never be employed for the spread or error or the ruin of anyone!
         May everyone openly receive the message of Jesus Christ.
         St. Gabriel, pray for us and for the apostolate of communications. Amen.

Friday, September 22, 2017

Pages from the Past: the Meaning of Life

From 2014?

Mystery: we are here to learn how to love. That’s all. All our “works” are really ordered to that end alone. Any other end is only a means to that, or it is a waste of time and energy at the least, besides being a detour or distraction.
Paul's “This will all work out for the spread of the Gospel” = “This can yield new occasions to make the love of Christ present and operative…” This also suggests that the scale by which I determine where to focus my energy is not one of mathematical efficiency, but of the sincere gift of self. It is the “complete gift of self” that makes “the surpassing love of Christ” present in the world in a new way.
This can make any eventuality meaningful.

"Pages from the Past" are randomish excerpts from my old journals. I process things in writing, so there were a lot of volumes, but here and there I found notes that were still pertinent or helpful. I got rid of the books (hello, shredder!) and typed up the things I wanted to save, whether for myself (mostly) or to share.

Wednesday, September 06, 2017

Rest in Peace, "Toodie"

It's pronounced "2-D" (accent on the 2), and when my godmother Toodie made little notecards, she drew a little 2-D logo on the back of each one. Toodie (her given name was Irma) was Mom's eldest sister and my godmother. Yesterday afternoon at her home in New Orleans Toodie died. At the time, all of my sisters (two of whom had been very involved in caring for Toodie over the past year) were in Boston's Logan Airport, waiting for their return flights after a long weekend visit with me. They received word of Toodie's death before their flights boarded. (Actually, one of the flights wouldn't even take off for another three hours, but that's a different story.)
As the eldest of seven children, Toodie was a take-charge sort of person. That quality served her well in her 50+ years at WDSU, the NBC affiliate in New Orleans. I remember many visits to Toodie's workplace, then located in the French Quarter's Brulatour House (now being restored and renovated as a museum). That media connection in her professional life means that Toodie has an automatic claim to Pauline prayers until Jesus comes again.

For me, Toodie was an ideal godmother. Faith came first in her life, and daily Mass came first in her morning. When we kids would spend the night at our grandparents' house (which we called "Toodie's house" since she was the most kid-engaged person who lived there), we knew that the morning would bring an early Mass followed by breakfast with fluffy orange juice, a real favorite. (Recipe: in blender, combine frozen OJ concentrate and water. Run blender until foamy. Serve.) Evenings with Toodie involved Scrabble or card games (Old Maid was a favorite). Sometimes we went through her abundant stocks of remnant fabrics and trim, making doll clothes while Toodie made dresses for us. She made my eighth grade graduation dress as well as the blue velvet dress I wore to a winter prom in high school. (The prom dress had a matching choker, that being the 70's.) She served the men of the family with her barbering skills, and no special occasion ever ended without the family being documented in a photograph taken with her trusty Canon.

Toodie traveled the world, even bringing a niece or two along. She stayed in correspondence for years with the people she met in places like Paris, Rome, London, Munich. Sometimes our visits to Toodie's house found us pulling shoe boxes out of the antique armoire in her room, each box filled with souvenirs that we could beg for.

I didn't manage to go to any exotic destinations with her, but a month before I entered the convent, Toodie and her best friend ("Dimpsy") led me, my cousin Lynn and my sister Jane on a trip to the Smoky Mountains. We bought my convent trousseau linens in the factory stores of North Carolina's mills and prayed the rosary each day in the car. (See what I meant about her being a real godmother?)

This was taken in 1952, but
I remember that coat. It's
probably still in the closet.
Hurricane Katrina brought many material losses to Toodie's neighborhood (near Tulane University), but it also brought a big surprise. In my grandfather's soaked ground floor workshop, Toodie found a box of papers: her father's memoirs. Long since retired, she marshaled her secretarial experience in a labor of love and filial devotion, carefully typing and editing the papers and having them published in book form.

She remained active and on the run until last year when she (somewhat reluctantly) surrendered her car keys at age 95. "I knew this day would come," she said, "I just didn't think it would be so soon." Her loss of independence was magnified just two months later, when in October a broken hip led to her (first?) hospitalization. The ten months since that were a long Purgatory for a woman who had never had a major illness. That Purgatory ended yesterday. The convent Mass was offered for her (and the father one a novice) this morning, hopefully ending any other Purgatory she may have needed.

+ + + 

I think Toodie was in her eighties when Mom expressed concern about Jane's not having yet married (Hurricane Katrina later took care of that). Mom may have said something along the lines of "she might end up like Toodie." Which Toodie definitely heard. She looked up indignantly. "I've had a wonderful life!"

Rest in peace, dear Toodie!

Pages from the Past: Ask and You Will Receive

“Ask and you shall receive” is not a conditional phrase: It is a promise. 
Jesus doesn’t say we will get what we asked for, but what we will receive is what promote our full joy (and ultimately Heaven: to be God—pure joy—by participation, which we were made for).
“Ask and you will receive,” so be open to it.

"Pages from the Past" are randomish excerpts from my old journals. I process things in writing, so there were a lot of volumes, but here and there I found notes that were still pertinent or helpful. I got rid of the books (hello, shredder!) and typed up the things I wanted to save, whether for myself (mostly) or to share.

Thursday, August 31, 2017

Selling a Bad Idea: Censorship as Propaganda

I just finished reading a book recommended by my brother-in-law, a PR specialist. In Influence: the Psychology of Persuasion, Dr Robert Cialdini unpacks the techniques used by a group he calls "compliance practitioners" (in other words, people engaged in marketing, advertising and public relations, etc.).  Cialdini explains the psychological processes and factors behind the effectiveness of strategies like free taste samples in the grocery aisle, celebrity testimonials, and Pampered Chef parties (or the Tupperware Parties my mother's generation put on). I was especially impressed with his treatment of "social proof," but that lies beyond the scope of this post. (You'll have to read the book!)

What I'm more interested in today is the technique of invoking scarcity: Limited Time Only! Limit: Two per Customer! 

Included in Cialdini's study of scarcity techniques is the concept of censorship. Censorship creates a kind of "scarcity" mentality with regard to the information or images that an authority seeks to restrict, making it seem all the more desirable. This is hardly news. What impressed me was a further elaboration of the scarcity-through-censorship strategy as a means for promoting or furthering an otherwise detestable point of viewbecause this has become an almost everyday occurrence in our civic news.

Here's what Cialdini writes (my emphasis added):

...When University of North Carolina students learned that a speech opposing coed dorms on campus would be banned, they became more opposed to the idea of coed dorms. Thus, ever hearing the [banned] speech, they became more sympathetic to its argument. This raises the worrisome possibility that especially clever individuals holding a weak or unpopular position can get us to agree with that position by arranging to have their message restricted. The irony is that for such people—members of fringe political groups, for example—the most effective strategy may not be to publicize their unpopular views, but to get those views officially censored and then to publicize the censorship.
Now look at your newspaper (or the social media you get your news from). Perhaps this struck me in a particular way because the day I read it my social media feeds had images of violence being unleashed by anarchists against a peaceful protest gathering. Are today's headliners instinctively taking a page from Cialdini's book?

In his Epilogue, Cialdini warns that the avalanche of information we now receive on a regular basis can compromise our judgment: "...when we are rushed, stressed, uncertain, indifferent, distracted, or fatigued,  we tend to focus on less of the information available to us." We revert to shortcuts. We leave ourselves vulnerable to manipulation. Human nature being what it is, we can find ourselves growing sympathetic toward causes that we perceive as suppressed. 

Just another reason we need to promote (and practice!) media literacy.

Monday, August 28, 2017

Turning from Our Idols

In today's first reading, Paul congratulates the Thessalonians on their profound conversion from the worship of idols to the "living and true God." In the Gospel we find somewhat the reverse: Jesus castigates the religious experts and complains that when they do win a convert over, it is to the detriment of the community. In part, Jesus hints that this is because the scribes and Pharisees themselves are given over to idols. We get a glimpse of that in the examples Jesus cites: "If one swears by the temple, it means nothing, but if one swears by the gold of the temple, one is obligated." The gold of the temple and the gift on the altar become the core value at stake, rather than "the living and true God" of the temple.

Unfortunately for us, the tendency to substitute idols for God did not end with the destruction of the temple.

A sad example of this was in last week's news. In fact, I can't quite get it out of my mind (or my prayers), it is so illustrative of the hold that our idols, any idol, can take on us. I'm referring to last week's news story about the New Jersey priest who got so involved in poker games and tournaments that his life began to revolve around them. Lost games began to seem like a nasty joke on God's part. (Shouldn't God have been helping a priest win--and win big?) Finally, the priest got fed up with all those losses. To get back at God, he came up with the foulest offense he could think of. He started a child porn collection on his computer. He wasn't even into porn--his idol was poker, and it became the center of his life, the value by which he measured every other good, even God. Now he's in jail, stripped of his ministry, and poker can do nothing to help him.

It can happen to anyone.

One of the benefits of a retreat is to distance us from our everyday idols so that with the light of the Holy Spirit we can begin to recognize the hold they have on us and cooperate with the liberating grace of God. The Lord helped me on my recent annual retreat to identify one of those miserable idols of mine; in these weeks since then I have been surprised at how many times (and in how many ways!) that idol has woven itself into my day.

Paul tells us, "You are the slaves of the one whom you obey" (Rom 6:16). We do not merely "worship" our idols, we serve them; we obey them. Little by little, our idols reset our center of gravity to the point that we enter into a worldview that, for all practical purposes, has been established by our idols.

Each time I become aware of my idol, I'm resolved to hand it over to Our Lady so that in this centennial year of her appearances at Fatima, I can begin to really "be transformed by the renewal of my mind" (Rom 12:2) and become more and more interiorly free.  "For freedom Christ has set us free!" (Gal 5:1).

Our idols can be material (like money, pleasure, or poker) or more subtle in nature (security, power, status--even spiritual status!). Has God freed you from an enslaving idol in your life? How has this changed the way you live?

Monday, August 21, 2017

From Retreat Silence to the Shouting in the Streets

After a week of retreat (eight days without Twitter or Facebook!), I find myself again immersed in a river of conversations, comments, epithets and headlines, this time mostly circulating around the provocatively racist and nativist actions of young, self-styled "neo Nazis."

It seems to me that I am seeing a new expansion of an important area of the Pauline mission and spirituality. Not that we can issue the definitive answer to the social problems or ideological errors behind the things we see in the news: no. Our mission is not only to publish and spread the truth of things, it also has a spiritual dimension of offering reparation for the ways media are put at the service of error and ideology. Because those racist ideologies are not springing full-grown from the tabula rasa of a naive human brain; they are being communicated (with a certain perverse effectiveness) through various forms of media.
A Berlin courtroom. 

Used to be, people spoke of the "loss of a sense of sin." Maybe that was only Stage One. Now we are witnessing the "loss of a sense of truth." These particular untruths would have nowhere to go if our society has a whole had not already lost its moorings in objective truth.  And with that loss of a sense of truth, are we not also witnessing the loss of a sense of community? Looking at those angry young men I have to wonder what motivates them to follow a standard dress code, or carry a shield, or wield a torch in the name of their ... skin color?

What a contrast with the young people whose writings I was reading while on retreat! A few weeks earlier, I had received a review copy of At the Heart of the White Rose: Letters and Diaries of Hans and Sophie Scholl. The Scholl siblings (Sophie was the subject of a recent biopic) were about the same age as many of the white supremacists we have seen on parade these past several weeks.

Immersed in Nazi Germany (the real thing, not the romanticized and mythical version that so enraptures our American Johnny-come-latelies), by all rights the Scholls should have completely bought into the system that surrounded them. They had been members of Hitler Youth. Hans was even in the German Army (as a medic). But somewhere along the way these two young people (at their execution, Hans was 24, Sophie 21) had discovered a point of reference outside of themselves. They discovered philosophy through wise mentors who had not yet been eliminated from society, and then they discovered the foundation of all truth, God.

And so instead of enthusiastic (or at least resigned) cooperation with the goals of the Third Reich, they became a unique part of the Resistance, boldly calling other young adults in the name of the "White Rose" to reject Nazi ideology and to resist it in any way they could. Members of the White Rose wrote and printed newsletters in secret, distributing them through a variety of channels to university students. Each issue included the invitation, "Make and distribute as many copies of this as you can."

While they were doing this, the Scholls continued a lively correspondence with friends and family, sometimes alluding in coded language to their illegal enterprise. There had been hints even earlier of the direction their lives would take. A few years before the first White Rose bulletin came out, Sophie had written to her boyfriend, Fritz (like Hans, on active duty, but unlike Hans, a firm believer in "my country, right or wrong"):
" constantly meets the view that, because we've been born into a world of contradictions, we must defer to it. ... If it were so, how could one expect fate to make a just cause prevail when so few people unwaveringly sacrifice themselves for a just cause?" 
Hans, similarly, had written to his sweetheart: "This war (like all major wars) is fundamentally spiritual. I sometimes feel as if my puny brain is the battle ground for all these battles. I can't remain aloof because there's no happiness for me in so doing, because there's no happiness without truth--and this war is essentially a war about truth."

The Scholls knew it wouldn't be long before the Gestapo traced the paper, the envelopes, perhaps the typewriters, to their little group of confederates, and that once discovered, they would be ruthlessly eliminated. And yet, in the middle of their doomed enterprise, Sophie wrote to a dear friend, "Isn't it mysterious--and frightening, too, when one doesn't know the reason--that everything should be so beautiful in spite of the terrible things that are happening? My sheer delight in all things beautiful has been invaded by a great unknown, an inkling of the creator whom his creatures glorify with their beauty. --That's why man alone can be ugly, because he has the free will to disassociate himself from this song of praise. Nowadays one is tempted to believe that he'll drown the song with gunfire and curses and blasphemy. But it dawned on me last spring that he can't, and I'll try to take the winning side."

Hans, too, noticed and delighted in beauty. At about the same time as the White Rose was about to blossom, he had written to a girlfriend:
"The sun's shining. The snowdrops are out, and white clouds are sailing across the sky. Dark earth and bright sky. I feel like saying yes to everything. I feel like saying, yes, I love you, yes, I know the way, oh, yes, it's bliss to be a human being."
These are not sentiments we would expect to find our American neo-Nazis expressing. I think that's significant.

Meanwhile, there's this:

Disclosure of Material Connection: Some of the links in the post above are “affiliate links.” This means if you click on the link and purchase the item, I will receive an affiliate commission that can help me...get more books. In addition, I received a free copy of the book mentioned above. I am committed to giving as honest a review as possible, as part of my community's mission of putting media at the service of the truth. I am disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission’s 16 CFR, Part 255: “Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.”